Soil organic matter refers to all kinds of organic compounds containing carbon in soil in various forms. It includes various products of different decomposition and synthesis stages of animal, plant and microbial residues in soil. Soil organic matter contains all the nutrients needed for plant growth, with the mineralization of organic matter, constantly released for plants and microbes use, at the same time release of microbial life activities required for energy, and improve the stability of the soil particles, through changing the thermal properties of the soil, influence the soil cation exchange capacity, and other functions and ultimately affect the soil physics and chemistry. Soil organic matter is an important index of soil fertility in orchard. Soil organic matter can be directly to fruit tree growth provides a considerable amount of nutrient elements and physiological active substances, is closely related to the fruit yield, fruit quality, is high yield and stable yield and quality of the orchard the basic conditions of fruit production. Therefore, it is the key to improve soil fertility of orchard to increase soil organic matter content.
Ways to improve soil organic matter:
Scientific application of organic fertilizer, orchard overlaying, orchard planting, orchard planting and natural grass are effective measures to improve soil organic matter.
1) apply organic fertilizer
Increasing organic fertilizer in orchards is an important measure to improve soil organic matter, fertilize the soil and improve the soil quality of orchards. The application of organic fertilizer can significantly increase the content of soil organic matter, and the increase of organic matter is directly related to the application amount. There are many kinds of organic fertilizer sources, mainly including human and animal manure, plant residues, various kinds of cake fertilizer, compost, composting, manure, manure, marsh manure, green manure and other agricultural fertilizers and commodity organic fertilizers. With the increase of fertilizer application year, organic soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and available phosphorus and available potassium content were increased, alkali solution nitrogen in the soil has been in a relatively stable state, and chemical fertilizers soil alkaline hydrolysis n is declining trend year by year.
2) fruit tree litter
It is also an important measure to improve soil organic matter to return fruit to orchard after certain treatment. If the fruit tree litter coverage directly under a tree, which carry the diseases and pests of source may cause harm to the orchard, litter can be collected for composting, high-temperature heap corruption after sterilization, then applied to the orchard.
3) orchard coverage
Orchard overlaying is to use crop straw, weeds in the orchard, dead branches and leaves of fruit trees as covering materials. Weeds leaf and dry root, such as mowing the grass after the commune are mainly distributed in 0 ~ 20 cm soil layer, in the soil degradation, transformation, the formation of humus, can make the soil organic matter content increased.
4) orchard grass
Orchard grass planting is the most economic and effective way to improve the orchard soil organic matter, born of the grass roots and leaves residue a lot into the orchard, and in the soil degradation, transformation, soil organic matter increased. Both artificial and natural grasses can increase the content of organic matter in soil by 2.4% ~ 57.5%. The results of this study have been widely recognized that the forage of orchards, especially legume forage, is an effective way to fertilize the soil. Legume green fertilizer has the characteristics of fast growth, high yield, comprehensive nutrition, low crude fiber content, high utilization value, easy to rot, timely fertilizer supply.
5) establish ecological orchards
It is also an effective way to improve soil organic matter to establish ecological orchards with grass growing in orchards and suitable poultry.
View of the orchard soil organic matter is low in China, organic manure plowing is insufficient, lack of organic fertilizer source, labor shortages, and scientific management consciousness, strengthen the fruit growers increase organic orchard investment, set up green fertilizer source, realize the orchard grass planting, attaches great importance to the orchard grass species by the use of, strengthen the research of compound system, fruit grass is to improve the status quo of fertility degradation of orchard, improve fruit quality, effective way to promote the sustainable use of orchard health.